Scientists and engineers simulate jet colliding with World Trade Center
Researchers at Purdue University have created a simulation that uses scientific principles to study in detail what likely happened when a commercial airliner crashed into the World Trade Center's North Tower on Sept. 11, 2001.
Researchers: Chris Hoffmann - Faculty, Sami Kilic - Former Member, Scott Meador, Voicu Popescu - Faculty, Paul Rosen - Graduate Student, Mete Sozen.
|WEST LAFAYETTE, Ind. — Researchers at Purdue University have created a simulation that uses scientific principles to study in detail what likely happened when a commercial airliner crashed into the World Trade Center's North Tower on Sept. 11, 2001.|
It took about 80 hours using a high-performance computer containing 16 processors to produce the first simulation, which depicts how the plane tore through several stories of the structure within a half-second, said Christoph M. Hoffmann, a professor of computer science and co-director of the Computing Research Institute at Purdue.
|"This required a tremendous amount of detailed work," Hoffmann said. "We have finished the first part of the simulation showing what happened to the structure during the initial impact.|
The researchers are analyzing how many columns were destroyed initially in the building's core, a spine of 47 heavy steel I-beams extending through the center of the structure, Sozen said.
"Current findings from the simulation have identified the destruction of 11 columns on the 94th floor, 10 columns on the 95th floor and nine columns on the 96th floor," he said. "This is a major insight. When you lose close to 25 percent of your columns at a given level, the building is significantly weakened and vulnerable to collapse."
The simulation research, funded by the National Science Foundation, was carried out by a team that includes Hoffmann; Sozen; Ayhan Irfanoglu, an assistant professor of civil engineering; Voicu Popescu, an assistant professor of computer science; computer science doctoral student Paul Rosen; and civil engineering doctoral students Oscar Ardila and Ingo Brachmann.
The simulation research is associated with an NSF "information technology research project" called Model Reduction for Dynamical Systems, which is led by Purdue and includes researchers from Rice University, Florida State University and the Catholic University of Louvain. The project is headed by Ahmed Sameh, Purdue's Samuel D. Conte Professor of Computer Science. "
One challenge will be taking the scientific simulation and putting it into a commercial visualization software so that the package is viewer friendly," said Popescu, who is leading that portion of the work.
Mathematical models are used to represent the Boeing 767 and the building.
"The simulation is enabling us to 'look' inside the building to see what really happened structurally," Sozen said. "This is not the first simulation, but I would say it's the most scientifically realistic one. We have spent a great deal of time on details of the mechanical properties of the columns and of the airplane, and we have benefited from the results of previous efforts at simulation."
In a broader sense, results of the computational component of the work will help scientists and engineers better understand situations and phenomena that are not ordinarily accessible using other methods. Such models can lead to insights in many areas of research and industry for applications ranging from designing safer buildings to developing new pharmaceuticals, said Sozen and Hoffmann.
High-performance computing is essential for the research, Hoffmann said. The computer scientists and engineers have been using the "nano-regatta" computer, an IBM system approximately equivalent to the combined power of 128 personal computers. The computer is operated by Information Technology at Purdue as part of the Network for Computational Nanotechnology, based at Purdue's Discovery Park and supported by the NSF.
Other computations were carried out using computers operated by the Northwest Indiana Computational Grid, a consortium supported by the U.S. Department of Energy involving Purdue, the University of Notre Dame, Purdue University Calumet and the Argonne National Laboratory, as well as computers at Purdue's Robert L. and Terry L. Bowen Civil Engineering Laboratory for Large Scale Research.
A team consisting of many of the same Purdue researchers in 2002 created a similar simulation of the Sept. 11 attack on the Pentagon.
Experience gained during the Pentagon-related research and laboratory experiments have helped the Purdue civil engineers and computer scientists develop the new model, Sozen said.
"As a result of the Pentagon research, we have a better understanding of what happens when a tremendous mass of fluid such as fuel hits a solid object at high velocity," Sozen said. "We believe most of the structural damage from such aircraft collisions is caused by the mass of the fluid on the craft, which includes the fuel.
"Damage resulting solely from the metal fuselage, engines and other aircraft parts is not as great as that resulting from the mass of fluids on board. You could think of the aircraft as a sausage skin. Its mass is tiny compared to the plane's fluid contents."
The simulation represents the plane and its mass as a mesh of hundreds of thousands of "finite elements," or small squares containing specific physical characteristics. Like the previous Pentagon simulation, the software tool uses principles of physics to simulate how a plane's huge mass of fuel and cargo impacts a building.
"It is a virtual reality," Sozen said. "The building is reduced to a mathematical representation, the airplane is reduced to a mathematical representation, and then we see what happens on impact."
Santiago Pujol, an assistant professor of civil engineering, worked with the researchers to develop experimental data to test the accuracy of the simulation by using an "impact simulator" to shoot 8-ounce beverage cans at high velocity at steel and concrete targets at Purdue's Bowen Laboratory. These data enabled the researchers to fine tune and validate the theoretical model for the simulation.
"We created a mathematical model of the beverage can and its fluid contents the same way we modeled the airplane, and then we tested our assumptions used to formulate the model by comparing the output from the model with that from the experiment," Sozen said.
Information about the simulation and the details about the NSF modeling project are available online.
- Emil Venere, (765) 494-4709, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Elizabeth K. Gardner, (765) 494-2081, email@example.com
- Mete Sozen, (765) 494-2186, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Christoph M. Hoffmann, (765) 494-6185, email@example.com
- Voicu Popescu, (765) 496-7347, firstname.lastname@example.org
- Ayhan Irfanoglu, (765) 496-8270, email@example.com
Technorati Tags: Nano or Nanotechnology and Nanotech and World Trade Center or Purdue University and structural engineering or General Petraeus the Situation in Iraq VIDEO and The Pentagon and MIT probes secret of bone's strength
|Trackposted to Outside the Beltway, Perri Nelson's Website, Rosemary's Thoughts|
Trackback URL: http://haloscan.com/tb/sookietex3/8954513673265003516
19 Trackbacks to this Post
Pirate's Cove ANSWER Hopes For Civil Disobedience… It’s funny how liberals are always yammering on about Bush destroying the Constitution, tearing it up, ruining it. Yet, they are the first ones to say "hey, let’s violate it!" Organizers of an anti-war protest scheduled for Sept…. 09.13.07 5:30
Yes,the CIA Helped Germany Foil Recent Terror Plot Excerpt: Many in the blogosphere questioned what, if any, involvement the United States had in the recent terror bust of al-Qaeda members in Germany. From this Spiegel Online report, it appears the US was in on this from the beginning: It ... Weblog: Right Truth Tracked: 09.13.07 - 5:38 pm
Muslim Doctor Arrested in Park with AK-47 Excerpt: This brings to mind the Muslim doctors arrested in the UK car bomb plot. So much for the poverty =terrorism formula concocted by liberal apologists for jihad.From Debbie Schlussel via LGF. Houssein Zorkot, a third-year medical student at Wayne State... Weblog: The Amboy Times Tracked: 09.13.07 - 8:44 pm
Friends are more precious than gold Excerpt: I do not have a Hemmingway nor a Faulkner pressing my mind at the moment for you, because I am overcome with a feeling that is very foreign to me. It is overwhelming. It is raw. It is good. The feeling for which I am referring is Friendship...Weblog: Rosemary's Thoughts Tracked: 09.13.07 - 8:51 pm
Right Truth Yes,the CIA Helped Germany Foil Recent Terror Plot… Many in the blogosphere questioned what, if any, involvement the United States had in the recent terror bust of al-Qaeda members in Germany. From this Spiegel Online report, it appears the US was in on this from the beginning: It… 09.13.07 9:40 pm
Stageleft:. Life on the [lower] left side If We Were To Be Driven Out… So lets summarize: Bush said that the United States has to stay in Iraq to prevent from happening what his policies and military machine have created….. 09.13.07 10:52 pm
Rhymes With Right Times Discounted “Betray Us” Ad… After all, anything to slander patriots and undermine the military. The New York Times dramatically slashed its normal rates for a full-page advertisement for MoveOn.org’s ad questioning the integrity of Gen. David Petraeus, the commander of U.S. forc… 09.13.07 11:22 pm
Rhymes With Right Release The Records… Any attempt to stop the release of these records of Hillary Clinton as First Lady should be taken as evidence of malfeasance on her part, and therefore held to be a disqualifier for her as a presidential candidate. An estimated…… 09.13.07 11:24 pm
Adam's Blog When the Shoe’s on the Other Religion’s Foot… Podcast Show Notes The Absurd leftist attack on religion continues. You have the 9th Circus declaring mandatory AA or NA unconstitutional because people have to acknowledge a higher power (which can really be anyone or anything.) Never mind that the… 09.14.07 06:59 am
I Need Your Opinion... Excerpt: It's very easy for me to operate over at WordPress.com, and I'm very disgusted with blogger.com. I don't know what to do! I need all of your help, and that is why I am putting this post on the open trackback today. PLEASE answer me! I cannot make th... Weblog: Rosemary's Thoughts Tracked: 09.14.07 - 8:21 am
Eco-Friendly Bombs from Russia with Love for the E Excerpt: Putin’s got a brand new bomb!!! And it’s GREEN! Weblog: Blue Star Chronicles Tracked: 09.14.07 - 2:31 pm
Newly Released Video from Beslan Excerpt: Warning: Not for people with weak stomachs or Islamofascist sympathizers. Weblog: Blue Star Chronicles Tracked: 09.14.07 - 2:46 pm
Blogging Michigander’s Personal Jihad Twarted Excerpt: Houssein Zorkot is a third-year medical student at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan. He is a muslim. He is waiting for the apocalyptic 12th Iman as is Ah-mama-jihad of Iran. He is a blogger. He has declared his ‘personal jihad’ on his webs... Weblog: Blue Star Chronicles Tracked: 09.14.07 - 3:01 pm
Leaning Straight Up The role of Government to protect… I’ve had some interesting discussions lately regarding governments. So thinking about it today I realized that a government only has two real roles. To Protect and to Provide. Provide is easy. It provides education and welf… 09.15.07 4:23 am
The World According To Carl Mississippi State Bulldogs vs. Auburn Tigers… Wow! Who’d a thunk it! Mississippi State actually beat Auburn on the road by a final score of 19-14. Maybe they aren’t as bad as I originally thought. I’m not completely convinced since the Bulldogs have always had one game in them each season wh… 09.15.07 5:09 pm.
The World According To Carl Godly Wisdom — September 15, 2007… God Holds Us Responsible For What We Do With His Word …… 09.15.07 5:14 pm
The World According To Carl Florida A&M Rattlers vs. Howard Bison… The Florida A&M Rattlers played the Howard Bison at home at Bragg Stadium in Tallahassee and won by a score of 30-17. This gives the Rattlers an overall 1-2 record and 1-1 in the MEAC. They have next week off and then play the Tennessee State Tige… 09.16.07 12:25 am.
The World According To Carl Florida State Seminoles vs. Colorado Buffalos… Florida State played the Colorado Buffalos late last night and frankly, I went to bed before the game was over. Sorry, but I had been up and running from 5am Saturday morning and even though I tried to watch some of the game, I was too exhausted to wat… 09.16.07 2:21 pm.
Right Voices Open Trackback: The Gathering Of Eagles Get A Big Fat 0 To The Anti War Protestors 189… Arrests that is! Michelle has incredible coverage here, here and here! 09.16.07 11:34 pm